Sugar smart app reaches 2m downloads

first_imgPublic Health England’s (PHE’s) sugar reduction app has been downloaded nearly two million times since it was launched in January.The Change 4 Life Sugar Smart app by PHE was introduced at the beginning of the year as part of the government’s drive to help us eat less sugar.The app allows users to scan barcodes in supermarkets to find out sugar content in “relatable” terms (cubes rather than grams – a sugar cube represents 4g of sugar).It was originally criticised for not having enough products loaded on it, but this is a “work in progress” according to a PHE spokesperson, and is “hugely improved”.The Food and Drink Federation (FDF) complained about the app when it was first launched, as there were said to be multiple errors in the data, but PHE said most of these have now been resolved.PHE told British Baker that more than 10,000 new products have now been added. The app’s database now has over 85,000 products on it, compared with the 75,000 it started out with in January.The app was introduced in January of this year in response to the news that four- to 10-year-olds consume 22kg of sugar a year – equivalent to the weight of an average five-year-old.The app cost PHE £5m to launch, although the organisation pointed out this was a small sum compared with the £5.1bn that obesity costs the NHS each year.Aldi, Asda, The Co-op, Morrisons and Tesco have all backed the app, although it has attracted criticism from suppliers because it makes no distinction between total sugars as opposed to free sugars.last_img read more

Virus-hit Philippine economy plunges into recession

first_imgThe outlook for the archipelago is bleak, with the number of coronavirus infections surging past 115,000 this week — a more than fivefold increase since early June when the economy-crippling restrictions were eased.  “Without doubt, the pandemic and its adverse effect on the economy are testing the economy like never before,” said acting Socioeconomic Planning Secretary Karl Chua. “But unlike past crises, the Philippines is now in a much stronger position to address the crisis.” As health workers struggle to cope with the influx of patients, more than 27 million people in Manila and four surrounding provinces on the main island of Luzon — which accounts for more than two-thirds of the country’s economic output– went back into a partial lockdown for two weeks on Tuesday to help ease the strain on hospitals. The Philippines plunged into recession after its biggest quarterly contraction on record, data showed Thursday, as the economy reels from coronavirus lockdowns that have wrecked businesses and thrown millions out of work.Gross domestic product shrank 16.5 percent on-year in the second quarter, the Philippine Statistics Authority said, when the country endured one of the world’s longest stay-at-home orders to slow the spread of the virus that has devastated economies globally.It followed a revised 0.7 percent contraction in the first three months of the year and marked the biggest reduction in economic activity since records began in 1981 during the Ferdinand Marcos dictatorship. It is the country’s first recession in three decades.  Topics :center_img But President Rodrigo Duterte, who was reluctant to tighten restrictions after millions lost their jobs in the first shutdown, has warned the country cannot afford to remain closed for much longer.”The problem is we don’t have money anymore. I cannot give food anymore and money to people,” Duterte said Sunday.The country’s economic woes have been exacerbated by a drop in remittances from the legion of Filipinos working abroad who typically send money to their families every month, which fuels consumer spending — the main driver of growth.Remittances dropped 6.4 percent in the first five months, compared with the same period last year, according to the central bank, as thousands of seafarers, cleaners and construction workers lost their jobs and returned home. Consumer spending in the second quarter plummeted 15.5 percent, the statistics agency said.  “It will be a rough road to recovery as trade-offs between economic recovery and health will remain a big challenge to both the private and public sectors,” said Emilio Neri, lead economist at Bank of the Philippine Islands.last_img read more

Juncker Commission to ‘eliminate’ EU funding of EIOPA

first_img“On the latter, you should find a way to eliminate EU and national budgetary contributions to the ESAs, which should be wholly financed by the sectors they supervise.”The recommendations for governance and funding reform follow on from a report, endorsed over the summer by the outgoing European executive, for the funding of the ESAs through an industry levy.Additionally, the report suggested that EIOPA’s two stakeholder groups – one for occupational pensions, one for the insurance industry – should be merged.Juncker further tasked Hill to work on greater long-term funding for the European economy, an issue first examined by the current internal markets commission.The letter said Hill should work with Commission vice-president for jobs, growth, investment and competitiveness Jyrki Katainen, who in his new role will be in charge of the Commission’s economic portfolios, to outline ways of improving the investment environment within three months of taking office.It added: “This will include seeking appropriate ways to revive sustainable and high-quality securitisation markets, to reduce the cost of raising capital in the Union and to develop alternatives to our companies’ dependence on bank funding.”Juncker also called for the creation of a capital markets union by 2019 “with a view to maximising the benefits of capital markets and non-bank financial institutions to the real economy”.The drive for a capital markets union is likely to focus on ways of encouraging pension investors to increase exposure to real estate and direct lending, two areas previously highlighted.Despite the loss of the current internal markets commission, with Hill in charge of the portfolio where it relates to financial regulation, incoming internal markets commissioner Elżbieta Bieńkowska is still likely to have an impact on the pensions agenda.Juncker instructed the Polish commissioner to ensure a “fully functioning single market for goods and services”, including the free movements of jobs – a matter recently touched on by the supplementary pensions rights directive.,WebsitesWe are not responsible for the content of external sitesJean-Claude Juncker’s mission letters to the incoming European commissioners The UK’s new European commissioner for financial services, Jonathan Hill, is set to overhaul the governance and financing of the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA), with the pensions and insurance industry soon to be fully responsible for all costs.Hill, who was today confirmed as incoming Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker’s candidate for the newly formed commission for financial stability, financial services and capital markets union, will also be tasked with fostering greater long-term investment in the European economy.In a letter from Juncker to the UK commissioner, the former Luxembourg prime minister said Hill’s role would be to review how the three European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) and the European Systemic Risk Board would function.“Particular attention should be paid to reviewing the governance and the financing of these agencies,” Juncker said.last_img read more

Buffon: ‘I’m proud I made my mark’

first_img Loading… “But I had to deal with what I represented, and I still think I represent.” read also:Buffon: ‘I’ll play until I’m 43’ Buffon has been Wojciech Szczesny’s wingman during his return to the Allianz Stadium. “I put myself to the test. I’m proud of myself, because I passed. I always disliked the arrogant and this was a way to test me, to be able to sa FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Juventus goalkeeper, Gianluigi Buffon, has revealed it was a difficult season but was ‘happy’ to have reached his own goal. ‘I had a target of reaching 10 Scudetti, since two of them were stolen’. The Bianconeri goalkeeper returned from a stint at Paris Saint-Germain to set a record of appearances in Serie A and win his 10th title with the Old Lady. “I’m happy. It was important for me to close the drawers, otherwise something would have remained unfinished,” Buffon told Il Corriere dello Sport. “I had a target of reaching 10 Scudetti, since two of them were stolen. “I did it. Even the record of appearances pleases me. But it hasn’t been an easy year. I have always adapted, I’m altruistic by nature.Advertisementcenter_img Promoted ContentBest & Worst Celebrity Endorsed Games Ever MadeThe Highest Paid Football Players In The WorldSurprising Photos Of The Rock And His Lavish LifestyleWho Is The Most Powerful Woman On Earth?8 Things You Didn’t Know About Coffee7 Things That Actually Ruin Your Phone5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?Insane 3D Spraying Skills Turn In Incredible Street ArtWhat Happens To Your Brain When You Play Too Much Video Games?last_img read more

STATEMENT GAME: Syracuse rushing attack sets tone in blowout win over Connecticut

first_img Related Stories Syracuse defense generates constant pressure, disrupts Connecticut offense in dominant winGallery: Syracuse dominates UConn in 40-10 victory The film presented the answer.Doug Marrone saw none of Connecticut’s opponents challenge its run defense this season. He decided Syracuse should be the first. The reason was twofold. Run the ball down the Huskies’ throats and challenge the front seven. The defense will start to creep up, and downfield should be wide open for quarterback Ryan Nassib to pick his spots.In a game Syracuse had to win, Marrone’s plan played out to near-perfection. The Orange (3-4, 2-1 Big East) rode career games from running back Jerome Smith and wide receiver Alec Lemon to a 40-10 win over Connecticut (3-5, 0-3) on Friday night in front of 36,715 fans inside the Carrier Dome. It was an offensive display that had rarely shown up this season, but it came at the time when SU needed it the most.Syracuse established the running game early. Just as the plan called for.“For us we knew that we had to come in and we knew we had to run the ball,” Marrone said. “We challenged those guys; we challenged them up front.”AdvertisementThis is placeholder textSU’s offense sputtered early. Two red-zone opportunities only amounted to field goals to give the Orange an early 6-0 lead. The struggles didn’t last long.Syracuse finished with 273 rushing yards against a UConn defense that was only allowing 118.4 yards on the ground per game. Only Temple has approached that number against the Huskies, but it still fell 71 yards short of the Orange’s total.On Syracuse’s first play of the game, Smith ran 20 yards through a hole beautifully created by the offensive line. He ran for 49 yards on four plays to get down to the Huskies’ 13 and set up a Ross Krautman field goal.Smith continued to run all the way to 133-yard day, a career high and his first 100-yard day.“Coach Marrone just finally told me it’s time to go,” Smith said. “It felt good to finally get that 100 yards. It felt good to finally get it.”Smith provided the bulk of the gaudy rushing numbers, but he had some help. Freshman tailback Ashton Broyld, who hadn’t played since Sept. 22 against Minnesota, racked up 58 yards on the ground on 11 carries. Prince-Tyson Gulley ran for 38 yards on eight attempts.And the more Syracuse ran, the more it could pass.Connecticut features two formidable cornerbacks in Dwayne Gratz and Blidi-Wreh Wilson, who Marrone said one day will be playing on Sundays. So to counter that, the Orange lined Lemon up on the inside. While the outside routes were shut down, Lemon had a mismatch on his defender.Since SU was pounding the ball so much, UConn had only one safety downfield for much of the night to help out on coverage. But it didn’t help.Coming out of halftime, Syracuse continued to establish the run.Tailback Prince-Tyson Gulley ran 13 yards on two plays to get to the Syracuse 28. On third-and-7, Nassib dropped back three steps and delivered a pinpoint pass to a wide-open Lemon near the left sideline. Lemon bolted 68 yards down field to the UConn 4.Gulley then ran 4 yards for a touchdown, putting the Orange up 27-10 and blowing the game open.“After the first drives, we kind of knew after the running game was going, we can feed off the running game with the pass game and just keep it going,” Lemon said. “They looked tired out there so we knew we could capitalize on that.”Syracuse’s 53 rushing attempts were a season-high. It had to be that way against Connecticut. If the Orange was going to beat one of the league’s top defenses that boasts two of the best corners SU has seen, Syracuse had to execute a game plan few others have this season.Left tackle Justin Pugh said Marrone challenged the line during the week to play a physical game against Connecticut. All game long, it did that and created huge holes for SU’s tailbacks to burst through.“Why stop it? It’s working good,” Pugh said. “It worked out well for us.”Offensive coordinator Nathaniel Hackett said the team wanted to have a balanced attack against Connecticut. That’s exactly what unfolded Friday, and Connecticut’s defense had no response.Run first. Open up the passing game. Syracuse found the answer.“The guys executed the game plan almost to perfection,” Hackett said. “It was awesome. All the passes, the runs, everything. All the nuances we had, I thought we did a great job.” Comments Published on October 19, 2012 at 9:48 pm Contact Chris: [email protected] | @chris_isemancenter_img Facebook Twitter Google+last_img read more

Home runs prove crucial against Ohio State

first_imgJacob Schwoerer / The Badger HeraldBig fly. Round-tripper. Salami. Tater. Those are just a few colorful synonyms for a home run, which played a big part in the Wisconsin softball team’s weekend sweep of Big Ten rival Ohio State at Goodman Diamond. Thanks to three timely home runs, the Badgers pulled off 7-6 and 3-1 wins Saturday – with the former coming in 10 innings – and a 4-2 win Sunday.With the sweep, the Badgers (33-9 overall, 10-5 Big Ten) moved into sole possession of third place in the Big Ten standings, and now sit only one win away from tying their season total from a year ago.After leading the final three and a half innings of the first game Saturday, the Buckeyes (27-17, 6-9) surrendered three runs to Wisconsin in the bottom of the seventh to send the game into extra innings. Then, in the bottom of the 10th, Wisconsin’s leading hitter stepped into the box just looking for a way to reach base.“Really, I was just in the zone in that at-bat. I wasn’t thinking about ending the game right away or anything like that. I just wanted to get on base and hopefully someone else could hit me in, so we could end that game,” junior right fielder Mary Massei said.But instead of reaching base, Massei drilled a shot over the centerfield fence to give the Badgers the come-from-behind victory.“Always having a walk-off hit is pretty exciting, but having it be a home run also–it’s amazing,” Massei said. Wisconsin’s long-ball prowess wasn’t the only aspect on display during the three games as the pitching staff, composed of senior Meghan McIntosh and junior Cassandra Darrah, put together three strong performances.Other than the fourth inning of the first game, in which Darrah gave up five runs, she and McIntosh combined to give up only two earned runs in the 23 other innings of work.Head coach Yvette Healy was impressed with her two pitchers’ resiliency during the course of the weekend, which included Darrah tossing 10 innings of six-hit ball in the first game.“They did a good job mixing speed, keeping them off balance, throwing both sides of the plate,” Healy said. “I think that was the number one thing that I saw that I think [pitching coach Tracie Adix] has really instilled in them. [Darrah and McIntosh] were just tough pitchers and even if there were errors behind them or any little adversity, the pitchers really muscled through, so I was really proud of that.”After the exciting finish in game one, McIntosh scattered six hits in the second game Saturday and struck out four to hold the Buckeyes to one unearned run. Her strong showing led Healy to go with her hot hand for start in the finale Sunday afternoon.Although Healy’s plan was to have both pitchers split the game, McIntosh came out strong and ended up completing all seven innings while yielding only four hits to Ohio State.Senior catcher Whitney Massey witnessed all three pitching performances from behind home plate, citing how McIntosh looked just as good Sunday, even though the Buckeyes had seen her in back-to-back games.“Actually, everything was working really well behind the plate today,” Massey said. “I think [the Buckeyes] were just a little bit more prepared. They just saw [McIntosh] in the second game last night. I think they were just ready to come out swinging. They didn’t want [us] to get the sweep.”Massey noted McIntosh was most effective in keeping OSU off balance when her changeup was finding the strike zone with consistency.Massey not only played a pivotal role behind the plate, but standing next to it as well. After Ohio State tied Sunday’s game in the top of the sixth inning, Massey was the one who promptly untied it in the bottom of the same inning.Earlier in the game, in the third inning, Massei had homered, which was the Badgers’ only run and hit in the game by the time the sixth inning rolled around. Massei came up second in the sixth and reached by way of a single, giving Wisconsin its second hit. Senior outfielder Kendall Grimm then walked, which set up Massey for what proved to be the game-winner. With one strike on her, Massey crushed a ball deep over the left field fence, emptying the bases and giving the Badgers a 4-1 lead.The Buckeyes would get one run back in the top of the seventh, but the home runs and dominating pitching by Wisconsin came together and solidified its first Big Ten sweep of the season.“Ohio State is just a phenomenal program in every sport, so if you can get wins against them, it’s a big deal. For us right now, the sweep was a nice boost,” Healy said.last_img read more

Roethlisberger, Harrison shine as Steelers light up Ravens 43-23

first_imgPittsburgh Steelers quarterback Ben Roethlisberger (7) passes as Baltimore Ravens outside linebacker Elvis Dumervil (58) pressures in the first quarter of an NFL football game, Sunday, Nov. 2, 2014, in Pittsburgh. (AP Photo/Keith Srakocic)PITTSBURGH (AP) – A lot of scenarios ran through Terrell Suggs’ head when the Baltimore linebacker prepared to face the Pittsburgh Steelers.Having Ben Roethlisberger throw six touchdown passes was not among them. The Pittsburgh quarterback put up half-a-dozen scores the week before against Indianapolis. No way he was going to do it again, right? That never happens.Never, at least, until now.Roethlisberger set an NFL record for touchdown passes in consecutive games, hanging six more on the Ravens in a testy but surprisingly easy 43-23 victory Sunday night.Roethlisberger broke the record for touchdown passes in consecutive games of 11 set by Tom Flores for Oakland in the AFL in 1963 and matched by New England’s Tom Brady in 2007.“You could have never sold me that during the week, even though he did it last week,” Suggs said. “But he had a hell of a game, and that’s a reflection on us all. You have to stop him in some certain situations.”Baltimore (5-4) didn’t really come close.Bolstered by a pregame pep talk from Hall of Fame defensive lineman Joe Greene, whose No. 75 was retired at halftime, and a throwback performance from 36-year-old linebacker James Harrison, the Steelers (6-3) ended a pivotal three-game homestand with arguably their most complete victory of a suddenly promising season.Antonio Brown caught 10 passes for 138 yards and a score. Rookie Martavis Bryant hauled in two scoring receptions and has five touchdowns in three games after spending the first six weeks of the season on the inactive list.“Everybody has to wait for their opportunity,” Bryant said. “It’s just when the opportunity presents itself whether you take advantage of it or not.”Joe Flacco passed for 303 yards with two touchdowns and an interception, but was sacked four times as the Ravens were undone by a sloppy second quarter. A fumble by Lorenzo Taliaferro and an ill-advised throw by Flacco helped start a 22-point Pittsburgh run to end the first half.“We set them up with two scoring situations,” Baltimore coach John Harbaugh said. “When you put guys in that part of the field, they are going to have a chance to make some big plays.”Roethlisberger’s numbers weren’t the only thing eye-popping as Pittsburgh topped 30 points for a third straight game for only the fourth time in franchise history. Some other takeaways in a rare blowout in a series where dramatic finishes are the norm:PEP TALK: The Steelers received a welcome pregame boost from Greene.“He talked about Steeler football, coming in and whipping somebody’s butt,” Pittsburgh cornerback Brice McCain said.ROUGHING IT: The teams combined for 17 penalties for 175 yards, including a handful of personal fouls. Suggs drew a flag for diving at Pittsburgh running back LeGarrette Blount’s knees in the second quarter, with teammate Elvis Dumervil getting his own personal fouls minutes later for slapping Pittsburgh’s Le’Veon Bell.“I think it was traditional Ravens-Steelers,” Suggs said. “Sometimes, you just play football, but sometimes things get a little excessive.”FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH: Yes, that really was Harrison sacking Flacco twice and spending most of the game in the Baltimore backfield. Heady territory for a guy that was retired two months ago. Harrison now has four sacks in his last two games, or more than he had all of last season while playing in Cincinnati.“I am old and slow,” Harrison said. “I got God doing most of the work.”LONG ROAD: The Ravens find themselves in last place in the AFC North with two losses to first-place Cincinnati and one to the Steelers.“We don’t control our own destiny now, so we have to go out there and get a win the next time out,” Baltimore wide receiver Torrey Smith said. “We need one and have to get it.”OUCH: The Steelers lost safety Troy Polamalu with a sprained left knee in the second quarter. Polamalu hobbled off the field quickly and returned for one play before heading to the locker room. Pittsburgh rookie linebacker Ryan Shazier left in the second quarter with a right ankle injury.___AP NFL website: www.pro32.ap.org and www.twitter.com/AP_NFLlast_img read more

KIJHL suspends BV head coach for three games

first_imgThe long and the short of last weekend’s  Beaver Valley/Trail Smokies bus incident resuts in Kootenay International Junior Hockey League president Bill Ohlhausen handing Hawks’ skipper Terry Jones a three-game suspension and a small $100 fine.BC Hockey conducted an investigation into the matter but it seems the final decision on discipline was left up to the KIJHL, handing down the suspension.Jones and his players stood in front of the Trail bus Saturday, January 5 to protest the handling of Ryan Edwards by the Smokies coaching staff.Edwards left the Smokies in December and was suspended for 30 days by the BCHL club.Jones thought the suspension should end 30 calendar days after Edwards went onto the inactive list and not from December 6 to January 6. Wanting Edwards back on the ice to play in two key home games last weekend — Saturday against Kimberley and Sunday versus Revelstoke — Jones went the Smokies coaching office to discuss the matter with Birks before the team was to leave Saturday for a game in Merritt against the Centennials.Not getting an answer by Birks he wanted, Jones and the players then stood in front of the bus and would not let it leave.Jones will miss Saturday’s away game in Spokane and Sunday’s home contest versus Grand Forks as well as a home game Friday, January 18 against Spokane.He is scheduled to return to the Hawks on Saturday, January 19 against Spokane.Edwards has since joined the Nitehawks.See related story:http://thenelsondaily.com/news/relations-between-beaver-valley-and-trail-hockey-teams-reach-all-time-low-bc-hockey-investigate#.UPCPy4Xi7XUlast_img read more

Durant’s injury and how it applies to Raiders, NFL

first_img[vemba-video id=”van/sc/2019/06/12/bang_c4b2b01f-4dae-40d0-8cb7-f8b22afe6e6c”] Those were two instances Raiders coach Jon Gruden cited Tuesday when paying homage to both players during the course of one … CLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos on a mobile deviceALAMEDA — Cornerback Daryl Worley wanted to play so bad last season he kept popping a shoulder back into place to re-enter the game.Center Rodney Hudson had kidney stones in 2017 and didn’t miss a play.last_img

Darwin Acid Eats Literature

first_imgA potent acid has fallen on the bookshelf, eating away the minds and intentions of its characters, dissolving romances and adventures into a hideous morass of uniform consistency.    Prominent evolutionist Daniel Dennett, author of Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, wrote that evolution is like a “universal acid” that cannot be contained in its scientific vial.  It spills over onto every traditional belief and transforms everything it touches.  For an example, look what it does to literature.  John Whitfield, a freelance science writer from London, writing in Nature,1 explored the concept of “Literary darwinism”2 as a form of “Textual selection.”  In the article, a cartoon shows a monkey with Darwin’s face pondering Homer’s Iliad.  What is “literary darwinism”?  It is looking at all the characters and actions in literature as outworkings of the processes of evolution.  It is reading literature through the glasses of an evolutionary theory of mind.  It interprets every action of the characters as sexual strategies to pass on one’s genes.When, at the beginning of The Iliad – and Western literature – King Agamemnon steals Achilles’ slave-girl, Briseis, the king tells the world’s greatest warrior that he is doing so “to let you know that I am more powerful than you, and to teach others not to bandy words with me and openly defy their king”.  But literary scholar Jonathan Gottschall believes that the true focus of Homer’s epic is not royal authority, but royal genes.    Gottschall is one of a group of researchers, calling themselves literary darwinists, devoted to studying literature using the concepts of evolutionary biology and the empirical, quantitative methods of the sciences.  “Women in Homer are not a proxy for status and honour,” says Gottschall.  “At bottom, the men in the stories are motivated by reproductive concerns.  Every homeric raid involves killing the men and abducting the women.”  The violent world of the epics, he says, reflects a society where men fought for scarce mates and chieftains had access to as many women as slaves and concubines.  And he thinks that everything written since Homer is open to similar analysis. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Lest one think this is an idle pastime of a few academic elitists, Whitfield explains that literary darwinists are on “a crusade, an attempt to shake up literary criticism.”  They believe they have the scientific approach, founded on an evolutionary theory of mind, that will bring an objective “truth” to literary criticism.  Approaching texts with reference only to “the subjective and the social”, in their opinion, fails to understand “human motives and cognitive biases” that have been shaped by evolution.    This sounds like a new variety of social deconstruction, but its promoters say it’s not.  “The problem, say the literary darwinists, is that for the past few decades the humanities have, in the case of critics deconstructing texts, denied the need for a theory of human nature, asserting that the study of texts can be concerned with nothing outside those texts.”  According to one literary darwinist, earlier forms of social deconstruction only got parts of the truth but missed the important thing:Those influenced by freudianism, for example, might read a novel looking for hints of a child’s sexual desire for its parent.  A marxist would seek out economic and class conflicts.  [Joseph] Carroll [U of Missouri, St. Louis] has no truck with this: “The theories up to this point have all had a little bit of the truth, but have also all been fundamentally flawed,” he says.  “None comes to terms with the fundamental facts of human evolution.”How does literary darwinism work in practice?  Whitfield gives a few examples that illustrate the breadth of the territory eyed by this new crusade:Poetry:  One literary darwinist “uses ideas from cognitive science in her analysis of the mother-child bond in William Wordsworth’s Prelude.”Novels:  “A darwinian analysis of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, he [Carroll] says, goes beyond the simple idea that women look for fortune in men, to show how such animal concerns are filtered through the vast flexibility of human behaviour, cultural conditions and individual variation.“I don’t look at Pride and Prejudice and try to sort out what is biological and what is cultural,” says Carroll.  “I look at it and examine the way underlying biological dispositions are organized in a specific cultural ecology.  Nobody in the novel escapes the problems of mate selection, status and forming alliances.  But the characters also integrate these concerns with human qualities, such as intelligence, character, morals and cultivation.”  The noble, romantic characters, such as Elizabeth Bennett and Darcy, integrate successfully, hiding their reproductive issues beneath their social graces.  The more comic characters, such as Elizabeth Bennett’s mother, do not (although in marrying off her daughters, she is quite the evolutionary success).Comedy:  “Romantic comedies play upon the audience’s pleasure at seeing reproductive strategies rewarded.”Tragedy:  Tragedies, like when Medea kills her children, “appeal by invoking recoil from maladaptive acts.”Folk literature:  Gottschall found that “the majority of folk tales feature brave heroes marrying beautiful heroines, with the two living happily ever after.”To the literary darwinists, therefore, everything in the arts and humanities is fair game.  Novels and poems, epic tales and movies, histories and fantasies – indeed, everything written about the human condition – are the spoils of war as the scientists invade the humanities, gathering rich data on the “natural history of our species.”  As they plunder, texts are robbed of their original meaning and whatever the authors thought they were saying.  Everything must now be reinterpreted according to the Laws of Natural Selection and Sexual Selection.    Like any conquerors, the literary darwinists argue they are improving a bad situation.  They feel they are filling a void left by a long tradition of literary criticism that has “lost its place” and is wandering in a sphere of “obscurantism and irrelevance” with arguments settled solely by the one who “deploys the sharpest rhetoric and the best memory.”  In its place, literary darwinism offers “testable, durable knowledge” by applying “evolutionary psychology” to “work out what a story is ‘really’ about, not in some ultimate, metaphysical sense, but in the sense of whether a wide range of people interpret a work in the same way.”    Does this mean that literary darwinism is concerned primarily with attaining a new social consensus, with political ramifications?  It seems so.  Whitfield ends, “Ultimately, the theories of human nature that become widely held in a society will influence how that society believes people respond to their environments, and how they should be treated.”  The literary darwinists are not just trying to toss one more opinion into the ring.  They really are on a crusade.  Whitfield quotes Gottschall,3 “Literary scholars aren’t harmless,” Gottschall says.  “When we get it wrong it matters.”1John Whitfield, “Literary darwinism: Textual selection,” Nature 439, 388-389 (26 January 2006) | doi:10.1038/439388a.2Notice that Whitfield’s frequent use of uncapitalized darwinism, darwinist and darwinian demonstrates that Darwin’s name has become an idiomatic parcel of the English language.3Jonathan Gottschall is co-editor of a series of essays on literary darwinism, entitled, The Literary Animal: Evolution and the Nature of Narrative (eds Gottschall, J. & Wilson, D. S., Northwestern Univ. Press, Evanston, Illinois, 2005).  He also has an upcoming book, The Rape of Troy: Evolution, Violence, and the World of Homer.Friends, Romans, first Corinthians, lend me your ears.  I come to bury Darwin, not to praise him.  The evil that men do lives after them, the good is oft interred with their bones.  So let it be with Darwin.  The noble Gottschall hath told you Homer was ambitious: if it were so, it were a grievous fault, and grievously hath Darwin answered it…. O judgement!  thou art fled to brutish beasts, and men have lost their reason.  Bear with me; my heart is in the coffin there with Wordsworth, and I must pause till it come back to me.    If you have had enough of Darwin’s acerbic dregs, if you shudder at the destruction left in his wake, if this reduction of all that is noble and praiseworthy into sexual actions of mindless selfish genes leaves you horrified (realizing that no land is exempt, not even Narnia nor Jerusalem), if you have woken up to realize this is a crusade of titanic proportions, if you understand that Dennett’s universal acid has congealed into The Blob that is on the move, swallowing whole universities and institutions (12/21/2005), then rise to the occasion.  The darwinists have a vulnerability that neutralizes their acid and turns it into harmless vapor.  If you were perceptive, you caught it in their very words.  Joseph Carroll spoke of “the truth.”  Say those three little words that make the orcs freeze in their tracks and stab their own chests: What is Truth?(Visited 17 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more